During 1636, more than 82 years ago, the oil company Royal Dutch Shell was in the Nigerian oil-rich area of the Niger Delta for one single reason – raw.
Shell is the largest investor in the oil and gas industry in the countries of the subregion of West Africa.
Despite investments in Nigeria's oil and gas industry, the company continues to receive negative reactions from certain quarters about alleged corruption, oil theft and environmental pollution from oil spills and gas incineration.
A brief walk through the activities of Shell in the country shows that in 1936 the company established a Nigerian enterprise with a predecessor company BP PlcThe first batch of oil from Nigeria occurs in 1958 – in the same year, crude oil was discovered in Oloibiri, a small community in the local government district of Ogbia, located in Bayelsa.
In April 1973, the government of Nigeria took over the share in this venture, and in a few years the government increased its share, and BP refused the agreement.
In 1979 Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria (SPDC) was created, including the assets of the older Shell-BP consortium. With time The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) – which was established in 1777 – owned 55 percent of the company's shares, Shell owned 30 percent, French Total 10 percent, and Italian Eni 5 percent. Shell was still the operator.
In the year 1990 The Movement for the Survival of Ogoni (MOSOP), led by the last activist for the protection of environmental rights, Ken Saro-Viva, began its campaign for a fairer share of oil wealth for the residents of Ogoni, who came from the area, living in oil fields and compensation for environmental damage.
In January 1993, MOSOP organized protests of about 300,000 Ogoni residents against Shell and oil pollution. The military government of Nigeria occupied the region.
In April 1993, Shell Shell Nigeria Exploration and Production Company Limited (SNEPCo) which signed the Production Sharing Agreements for the development of offshore oil and gas interests. In the same year, Shell ceased production in Ogoniland.
In November 1995, Saro-Viva and eight other MOSOP leaders were Sani AbachaIn the military government on charges of murder, in worldwide horror. Nigeria earned a suspension from the Commonwealth.
In the late 1990s, Shell focused on offshore exploration, where it had greater profitability and fewer threats of insurgent attacks in the region.
Shell resumed production at the giant Bonga offshore field in 2005, two years after the SPD began to pump more than 1 million barrels of oil a day in 2003.
A year later in 200, a group of militants Movement for the emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) appeared and started attack Shell objects, MEND sought a significant share of the oil wealth for the people of the Delta and the restoration of oil spills. Pumping stations and SPDC platforms in the Niger Delta are attacked and production is falling.
In 2008, major spills resulting from operational errors fell into the community Bodo in Ogoniland in the Niger Delta. Spilled tens of thousands of barrels of oil, which leads to environmental pollution in the area.
In January 2010, SPDC sold several land deposits and stated that it no longer seeks Nigeria for growth. A year later Shell and Italy Eni acquired License for oil production (OPL) 245, a large offshore field, for $ 1.1 billion from a local company, Malabu.
In August 2011, the United Nations report criticized Shell and the Government of Nigeria for contributing to the 50-year contamination in Ogoniland, which, he said, needed the world's largest oil refining, which cost 1 billion dollars. USA and is up to 30 years.
In March 2012, a group of 11,000 Nigerians from Bodo, Ogoniland, filed a lawsuit against Shell in the High Court of London, claiming compensation for oil spills in 2008.
In January 2013 The Dutch court rules that Shell may be partly responsible for pollution in the Niger delta. The court said that the company had to prevent sabotage on one of its facilities. Four Nigerians and Friends of the Earth filed a lawsuit in 2008 in the Netherlands.
Shell took responsibility for the Bodo spills in January 2015, agreeing to pay 55 million pounds (83 million dollars at a time) to residents of the Bodo village and clean up their lands and waterways.
In May 2018, a lawsuit against Shell and Eni in connection with the acquisition of OPL 245 in 2011 began in Milan, Nine current and former managers and contractors, including the Executive Director of ENI, Claudio Descalzi, were accused by Italian prosecutors of taking a bribe to obtain an exploration license for the OPL-245. The field contains, according to estimates, nine billion barrels of oil, but never entered production.